Transcranial Doppler of the Neonatal and Infant Brain: How, When, and Why
Purpose or Case Report: Background: Duplex sonography is a critical portion of intracranial hemodynamics evaluation. Serial Doppler examination allows real-time assessment of disease progression or improvement.
The goals of this exhibit are:
1. Describe the technical approach of performing neonatal/infant transcranial Doppler ultrasound.
2. Review tips, and up to date technology that assist in optimizing studies.
3. Discuss changes in flow patterns with various pathologies, providing examples of clinical indications.
4. Review future potential techniques and applications.
Methods & Materials: Neonatal/infant cranial ultrasounds performed with Doppler at our institute were reviewed retrospectively with selected representative cases chosen to illustrate technical aspects and clinical indications for this procedure. Correlation was made with follow up radiology studies, clinical and/or surgical outcomes.
Major intracranial cerebral arterial (PSV/RI/PI) values with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, vascular malformations and brain death; terminal vein flow; dural venous sinus flow, and compression of the fontanelle for intracranial pressure assessment will be described.
Results: Typical findings in normal and abnormal infant transcranial Doppler exams will be illustrated. Emphasis on appropriate technique and methodology for serial examinations is described. Tips including utilization of a high frequency linear transducer, choosing optimal window of insonation will be discussed.
Conclusions: Through this exhibit, participants will learn to utilize cranial Doppler as an effective adjuvant tool when performing infant neurosonography.