Pediatric Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) is a safe and patient-friendly imaging modality. It improves the diagnostic capability of gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound without sedation, ionizing radiation and no use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents. Pediatric CEUS was originally used to detect vesicoureteral reflux, evaluate indeterminate focal liver lesions, assess and follow up solid-organ injuries sustained during blunt abdominal trauma. In 2016, the approval of Lumason® (Bracco Diagnostics Inc., Monroe Township, NJ) by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) marked the beginning of a new era for CEUS imaging. Since then, clinical requests for pediatric CEUS not only increased in number but also for a variety of examinations covering practically every organ system, including pediatric brain, lungs, solid organs and bowel. In addition, intracavitary applications of pediatric CEUS are now extending beyond the urinary tract, to include urogenital and anorectal malformations. Intravenous and intracavitary CEUS is used in pediatric interventional radiology, to confirm enteric tube placement, guide biopsies and drainage procedures and aide organ vascular mapping (e.g. renal, central vessels). Novel pediatric CEUS applications now used include intranodal CEUS lymphangiography for confirmation of needle position preceding MRI lymphagiography. Pediatric CEUS is performed in a number of clinical settings including inpatient units, outpatient radiology, emergency department, and intraoperative. These evolving indications and uses of CEUS combined with continuous advances in ultrasound technology, such as three-dimensional/four-dimensional ultrasound and improved contrast sensitivity, are establishing pediatric CEUS as an important alternative imaging examination that can complement or supplement fluoroscopy, CT and MRI. This presentation reviews the current wide spectrum of pediatric CEUS applications and imaging findings, according to body part, and the associated imaging findings.
SPR 2020 Annual Meeting & Postgraduate Course