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Society for Pediatric Radiology – Poster Archive

Hypoxic Ischemic Injury
Showing 5 Abstracts.

Venkatakrishna Shyam Sunder,  Chacko Anith,  Schoeman Sean,  Andronikou Savvas

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-029

Effective text-based communication, through radiologist reports, of imaging findings in term Hypoxic Ischemic Injury (HII) to family members, non-radiologist colleagues and members of the legal profession can be extremely challenging. Utilization of 3D printed models, where the actual findings of the brain can be communicated via tactile perception and rotating/grasping the models is a potential solution which has not been tested in practice. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different groups, comprising trained radiologists, non-radiologist physicians and non-physicians, in the detection of gross disease of the cerebral cortex from 3D printed brain models derived from MRI scans of children.
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Authors:  Venkatakrishna Shyam Sunder , Chacko Anith , Schoeman Sean , Andronikou Savvas

Keywords:  Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 3D Printing, Hypoxic Ischemic Injury

Cort Kayla,  Piskunowicz Maciej,  Hwang Misun

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-008

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the evaluation of the neonatal brain provides additional diagnostic information when compared to conventional gray scale ultrasound through the detection of perfusion abnormalities associated with injury. When compared to cross-sectional imaging, CEUS has many advantages given its relative low cost and ability to be performed at the bedside, without the need for sedation or exposure to ionizing radiation. Diagnostic information is yielded through the qualitative evaluation of parenchymal enhancement patterns as well as quantification of microbubble perfusion kinetics from which time intensity curves are derived and additional perfusion parameters can be extrapolated. Given the 2-dimensional nature of the modality, a strategically designed scanning protocol is necessary to obtain the aforementioned quantitative values. The purpose of this exhibit is to demonstrate the current understanding of brain CEUS and educate on the brain CEUS protocol used for the diagnosis of neonatal brain pathology. Read More

Authors:  Cort Kayla , Piskunowicz Maciej , Hwang Misun

Keywords:  hypoxic ischemic injury

Chacko Anith,  Andronikou Savvas,  Goncalves Fabricio,  Mian Ali,  Vedajallam Schadie,  Thai Ngoc Jade

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-048

The inter-arterial watershed zone in neonates is a geographic area without discernible anatomic boundaries, is difficult to demarcate and usually not featured in atlases. Schematics currently used to depict the areas are not based on any prior anatomic mapping, as compared to adults. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates in the acute to subacute phase with suspected hypoxic ischaemic injury can demonstrate signal abnormality and restricted diffusion in the cortical and subcortical parenchyma of the watershed regions, although this can often be subtle.

In contrast, in the chronic stage of evolution of partial prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury, atrophy and ulegyria can make the watershed zone more conspicuous as a region. Our aim is to use images extracted from a large medicolegal database (approximately 2000 cases), of delayed MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy, to demonstrate the watershed region.

To achieve this, we have selected cases diagnosed on imaging as having sustained a pattern of term, partial-prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury affecting the hemispheric cortex, based on the presence of bilateral, symmetric atrophy with ulegyria. From these we have identified those patients demonstrating injury along the entire watershed continuum as well as those demonstrating selective anterior or posterior watershed predominant injury for demonstration.

Recognition of this zone is essential for diagnosing partial-prolonged hypoxic-ischaemic injury sustained in term neonates, which also has implications for potential compensation in litigation. The set of images presented in this pictorial review provides a template for identifying the cortical watershed distribution when there is milder regional (anterior, parasagittal, peri-Sylvian and posterior) watershed injury and for more severe injury where multiple regions are injured in combination or as a continuum.
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Authors:  Chacko Anith , Andronikou Savvas , Goncalves Fabricio , Mian Ali , Vedajallam Schadie , Thai Ngoc Jade

Keywords:  Cortical Ischemic Patterns, Watershed Zone, Hypoxic Ischemic Injury

Chacko Anith,  Andronikou Savvas,  Goncalves Fabricio,  Vedajallam Schadie,  Thai Ngoc Jade

Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 132

Hypoxic ischemic injury (HII) is a leading cause of neonatal encephalopathy and resultant cerebral palsy. Most studies focus on early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and patterns of injury, with few studies evaluating patterns in delayed MRI of patients with cerebral palsy.

We aim to categorise the delayed imaging MRI findings and distribution of abnormalities in a large cohort of children with cerebral palsy and obtained for medicolegal purposes to determine the causes of cerebral palsy, and to map the frequency of anatomic involvement in those with hypoxic ischemic injury.
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Authors:  Chacko Anith , Andronikou Savvas , Goncalves Fabricio , Vedajallam Schadie , Thai Ngoc Jade

Keywords:  hypoxic ischaemic injury, HII, Patterns of hypoxic ischemic injury

Venkatakrishna Shyam Sunder,  Elsingergy Mohamed,  Worede Fikadu,  Andronikou Savvas

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-012

Perinatal Hypoxic Ischemic Injury (HII) has a higher prevalence in the developing world. One of the primary concepts for suggesting that an imaging pattern reflects a global insult to the brain is when the injury is noted to be bilateral and symmetric in distribution. In the context of HII in term neonates, this is either bilateral symmetric (a) peripheral/watershed injury (WS) or (b) bilateral symmetric Basal-ganglia-thalamus (BGT) pattern, often with the peri-Rolandic and hippocampal injury. Unilateral, asymmetric or unequal distribution of injury may therefore be misdiagnosed as perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. This has been previously reported in the typical distribution patterns, without a clear indication of the prevalence. We aimed to determine the prevalence of unilateral, asymmetric and unequal degree HII and to characterize the distribution on MRI in a large database of patients with Cerebral Palsy (CP) from South Africa. Read More

Authors:  Venkatakrishna Shyam Sunder , Elsingergy Mohamed , Worede Fikadu , Andronikou Savvas

Keywords:  Hypoxic Ischemic Injury (HII), Basal-ganglia-thalamus and Watershed, Unilateral, Asymmetric or Unequal distribution