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Society for Pediatric Radiology – Poster Archive

Showing 4 Abstracts.

Chan Alex,  Laughlin Brady,  Abid Waqas,  Latshaw Rachael,  Iaia Alberto,  Moftakhar Parham,  Nikam Rahul,  Kandula Vinay,  Choudhary Arabinda

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-071

The goal of this educational exhibit is to use a graphical and image heavy Powerpoint presentation to familiarize the reader with the background necessary to understand common clinical ASL-PWI imaging techniques along with displaying a pictorial assay of different normal and abnormal ASL perfusion findings within the field of Pediatric Neuroradiology.

To introduce our topic, we will briefly discuss the physiology of cerebral blood flow and how it is measured with and without an exogenous tracer. Next, to serve as an overview, we will show the general ASL experiment, namely, labeling, post label delay, and readout. Following, we will discuss each of the above components, beginning with showing the different main labeling methods, CASL, PCASL, and PASL. Finally, the concept of post label delay will be illustrated respective to each of the main labeling methods.

In the second section, we will discuss the image acquisition component by first describing and illustrating two common readout methods, such as 2D-EPI and 3D-GRASE methods along with their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, we will illustrate the process of background suppression along with its significance. Finally, we will review the process of obtaining perfusion weighted images through the subtraction between tagged and control images.

The third section will illustrate an assortment of clinical examples beginning with showing normal physiological hyper- and hypoperfusion and newborn perfusion characteristics. Following, we will highlight a spectrum of clinical cases including: moyamoya, HIE, medullary infarct with luxury perfusion, arteriovenous malformation, PRES, infections (intracerebral abscess, toxoplasmosis, cerebellitis), characteristics of headache, intracranial tumors (juvenile astrocytoma, hemangioblastoma, ATRT, and choroid plexus papilloma), cortical dysplasia, tuberous sclerosis with seizures, and variations presentations of methotrexate toxicity. Lastly, we will discuss cerebral blood reserve imaging utilizing acetazolamide challenge. All cases will contain pertinent clinical information and images from other sequences/modalities that aid in the diagnosis of disease.
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Authors:  Chan Alex , Laughlin Brady , Abid Waqas , Latshaw Rachael , Iaia Alberto , Moftakhar Parham , Nikam Rahul , Kandula Vinay , Choudhary Arabinda

Keywords:  Arterial Spin Labeling, Physics

Chan Alex,  Laughlin Brady,  Latshaw Rachael,  Abid Waqas,  Iaia Alberto,  Moftakhar Parham,  Kandula Vinay,  Nikam Rahul,  Choudhary Arabinda

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-066

PET/MRI has recently become a clinical realization after overcoming complex hardware and image reconstruction issues. The goal of this educational exhibit is to provide a comprehensive, yet understandable, introduction to these aspects of PET/MRI along with displaying a pictorial assay of different normal and abnormal metabolic findings within the field of Pediatric Neuroradiology.

The first part of this presentation will begin by highlighting the basic hardware components of the PET/CT contrasting with the interactions between the main components of the PET/MRI scanner along with their associated solutions. In general, these issues include how MRI can affect PET in terms of their magnetic field and RF properties and how PET affect MRI due to the scintillator/electronic components.

The second part will begin by discussing some soft tissue and hardware attenuation correction techniques that are currently in use, such as: Segmentation and atlas-based methods along with attenuation map generation and coil localization methods. Additionally, we will show the consequence of field-of-view (FOV) mismatch between the PET and MRI acquisitions and partial volume effects along with their solutions.

The final part will showcase clinical applications of PET/MRI to Pediatric Neuroradiology, featuring imaging protocol details and a pictorial guide of normal distributions and pathologic conditions. Clinical examples range from seizure localization, cortical malformations, manifestations of Phakomatoses, perinatal stroke, tumor recurrence, and Flutriciclamide (18F-GE180) imaging in the setting of neuroinflammation.
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Authors:  Chan Alex , Laughlin Brady , Latshaw Rachael , Abid Waqas , Iaia Alberto , Moftakhar Parham , Kandula Vinay , Nikam Rahul , Choudhary Arabinda

Keywords:  PET/MRI, Physics

Zhang Zhongwei,  Barhaghi Krystle,  Tao Ting,  Murray Kari

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-017

Pediatric body MRI is a highly effective imaging modality that enables precise characterization of diverse medical conditions. However, it comes with daily challenges, including accommodating variations in patient size, managing breath-hold difficulties, potential sedation needs, addressing patient comfort and anxiety, and the importance of minimizing RF energy deposition and contrast agent use. To become proficient in interpreting body MRI, it is essential to understand the techniques and clinical applications of each pulse sequence and learn how to use them for accurate tissue characterization.

In this ABC guide, we employ the structured approach of “clinical images - techniques – physics” to bridge the gap between practical application and the theoretical foundation of pediatric body MRI. It serves as a comprehensive roadmap, helping learners gain a profound understanding of not only what they are observing in the images but also the underlying reasons and mechanisms that give rise to these images.

We will present body MRI techniques in 4 categories: qualitative MRI sequences, quantitative MRI sequences, artifact recognition, and “how to”. In each category, our approach will encompass data acquisition, fundamental physical principles, imaging characteristics, and the essential groundwork for interpretation. These teachings are firmly grounded in our institutional MRI protocol for pediatric body MRI, providing a comprehensive and practical understanding of the subject.
The education poster will be divided as follows:
1. Qualitative MRI Sequences:
- T2-Weighted and Heavy T2-Weighted Imaging
- Pre- and Post-Contrast T1-Weighted Imaging
- Mixed T2/T1 Contrast Imaging:
- Cartesian, Radial, or Spiral-based k-space data acquisition: Detailed explanations of various k-space sampling methods will be provided.
- The Role of Magnetization Preparation Techniques
- The Role of Physiological Control
2. Quantitative MRI Sequences:
- Measurement of T1 and T2 Relaxation Times
- Measurement of ADC and Diffusion MRI Techniques
- Measurement of Stiffness of Liver and MR Elastography Techniques
- Liver Iron Quantification
3. Common Body MRI Artifacts in Pediatric Patients: A wide array of artifacts, including motion artifacts, susceptibility artifacts, and aliasing artifacts, among others, will be thoroughly covered.
4. How to…
- Address Body MRI Image Quality Issues
- Safely Scan Pediatric Patients with Implants
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Authors:  Zhang Zhongwei , Barhaghi Krystle , Tao Ting , Murray Kari

Keywords:  Body MRI, Physics, Pediatric Imaging