Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 147
Despite significant advances in delivering dose-intensive and myeloablative therapy with hematopoietic stem cell support, the survival for patients presenting with metastatic neuroblastoma remains poor, with a 3 year event free survival (EFS) of about 60%. Modern treatment protocols are based on risk stratification which incorporates age of diagnosis, tumor stage, tumor histology, and molecular and cytogenetics including MYCN amplification. 18F-FDG PET/CT can play a role in disease staging and follow up. The purpose of this study was to report FDG PET findings in a cohort of children with neuroblastoma and assess for predictive associations with MYCN amplification status. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-082
With the increased demand and utilization of PET/MRI in oncologic imaging, there is an ever increasing database of non-malignant pathology that has not yet been described on PET/MRI. Furthermore, the pediatric population provides an even more unique breadth of pathology that is often only seen in this age group. It is important to be able to accurately identify these common pathologies so as to not mistake them for malignancy and to prevent unnecessary follow up imaging studies and further invasive diagnostic procedures.
For this educational exhibit we review over 200 clinical pediatric 18F-FDG PET/MRs performed at our institution and highlight the most common and most interesting cases of FDG-avid non-malignant pathology.
Listed below are some of the cases to be included in the poster:
-Benign FDG avid bone tumors including non-ossifying fibromas
-Benign causes of FDG avid lymphadenopathy including cat scratch disease
-Benign causes of FDG avid lung lesions including aspiration pneumonia
-Benign causes of gastro-intestinal FDG uptake including pseudomembranous colitis
-Benign FDG avid infectious pathologies including a liver abscess Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-033
In the background of this limited data, this study aims to analyze and compare the size significance of right iliac fossa lymph nodes in pediatric patients in relation to metabolic activity on (18F-FDG PET/CT), scan in tertiary center managing oncological and non-oncological cases. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 148
To compare the detection of lesions between DW-MRI and 18F-FDG PET/MR for staging and restaging of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH), using all clinical outcomes and imaging data as the reference standard. Also, this study will compare the differences between LCH chemotherapy responders and non-responders. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-063
Purpose: 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography (PET-CT) has been shown to be superior to other imaging modalities in assessment of soft tissue involvement with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) and is now commonly included in the staging workup of LCH. Our purpose is to analyze the utility of skeletal survey in addition to PET-CT scan for detecting bone lesions in children with LCH and to evaluate if skeletal survey can be eliminated from the staging workup of LCH in order to reduce radiation exposure. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-060
To determine if diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) adds value to PET/MRI in pediatric solid tumors. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-066
PET/MRI has recently become a clinical realization after overcoming complex hardware and image reconstruction issues. The goal of this educational exhibit is to provide a comprehensive, yet understandable, introduction to these aspects of PET/MRI along with displaying a pictorial assay of different normal and abnormal metabolic findings within the field of Pediatric Neuroradiology.
The first part of this presentation will begin by highlighting the basic hardware components of the PET/CT contrasting with the interactions between the main components of the PET/MRI scanner along with their associated solutions. In general, these issues include how MRI can affect PET in terms of their magnetic field and RF properties and how PET affect MRI due to the scintillator/electronic components.
The second part will begin by discussing some soft tissue and hardware attenuation correction techniques that are currently in use, such as: Segmentation and atlas-based methods along with attenuation map generation and coil localization methods. Additionally, we will show the consequence of field-of-view (FOV) mismatch between the PET and MRI acquisitions and partial volume effects along with their solutions.
The final part will showcase clinical applications of PET/MRI to Pediatric Neuroradiology, featuring imaging protocol details and a pictorial guide of normal distributions and pathologic conditions. Clinical examples range from seizure localization, cortical malformations, manifestations of Phakomatoses, perinatal stroke, tumor recurrence, and Flutriciclamide (18F-GE180) imaging in the setting of neuroinflammation. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-043
Purpose: The evaluation of epileptic foci with FDG PET can be challenging, particularly when epileptic foci are subtle. We sought to determine if an age-matched database of normative cerebral FDG PET uptake can be used to automatically identify epileptic foci. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-123
Whole-body (WB) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in children is of special interest because it is radiation free and can be used to evaluate systemic conditions, exploiting the advantage of the superior soft-tissue contrast provided by MR imaging. An important clinical application of whole-body MR imaging in children is its use for screening of oncologic conditions, tumor characterization, and staging. However, the list of non-oncologic applications of WB MRI has recently expanded to include the evaluation of numerous multisystemic conditions.
This is a pictorial review of different oncologic applications of WB MRI including cancer predisposition syndromes, solid neoplasias and lymphomas, as well as of non-oncologic applications of WB MRI including chronic recurrent osteomyelitis (CRMO), enthesitis related arthritis (ERA), vascular malformations and benign tumors. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of conventional and functional MRI sequences including the use of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), color-encoded DWI enhanced with iron supplement Ferumoxytol as blood pool contrast agent, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the recently introduced WB positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-008 (T)
PET/MRI is a relatively new imaging modality whose efficacy is still being determined. One of the major draws to PET/MR over PET/CT is the reduction in radiation exposure to patients. This is especially desirable in the pediatric population due to the likelihood of multiple exposures during their lifetime, and the increased sensitivity they have to radiation. A typical whole body PET/CT exam can take about 30 minutes, whereas a typical whole body PET/MR exam takes about 90 minutes at our institution. The introduction of a new 3D T2 Dixon technique sequence for PET/MR has the potential of decreasing total scan time significantly, however maintaining current image quality and diagnostic value is critical. Our objective is to test out this new sequence to see whether scan times are reduced and if it is a viable diagnostic replacement for our current T2 sequence. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-094
The goal of this educational exhibit is to explore the utility of interictal FDG PET brain imaging in the evaluation of intractable, drug-resistant cases of pediatric epilepsy and to clarify its role in pre-surgical seizure focus localization. We will also explore the salient pearls and pitfalls of FDG PET brain imaging. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-089
Lymphoma (including both Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s) is the third most common pediatric malignancy. Treatment requires distinct definitions of bulky disease, response to therapy, and organ involvement. In this way, pediatric radiologists form a center role in the medical care of affected children. This educational exhibit examines pediatric lymphoma diagnosis and response to therapy by detailing the varying classification systems, including the newer PET-related Deauville and Lugano classification systems.
The Ann Arbor staging classification system for Hodgkin’s lymphoma was initially developed in the 1970’s and anatomically classifies lymphoma by site and number of lymph nodes affected, cross-diaphragmatic disease, and extralymphatic organ dissemination. More recently, after the introduction of PET/CT, newer classification systems which incorporated tumor metabolism were developed - including Deauville and Lugano. Notably, these systems are commonly applied to both Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This educational exhibit includes a discussion of these various systems as well as annotated examples. Additionally, risk stratification is discussed using strata defined by the Children’s Oncology Group (COG), EuroNet, and Pediatric Hodgkin Consortium.
After review, the pediatric radiologist should feel more comfortable staging and classifying response to treatment of lymphoma using PET assessment principles. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-088
PET/MR is a valuable and growing imaging method for the assessment and management of pediatric bone tumors. Although plain radiography remains the first line modality for initial evaluation, cross sectional imaging is often required for further characterization of indeterminate or aggressive appearing lesions. Due to its superior soft tissue contrast resolution compared to CT, MR has become the mainstay in tissue characterization, locoregional staging, and surgical planning of pediatric bone tumors. By adding functional and metabolic information, FDG-PET imaging is useful for “one stop” local tumor and whole-body staging, evaluating response to therapy and surveillance. 18F-FDG PET/MR scans have the benefit of lower radiation and increased patient convenience compared to 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. However, due to the relatively recent development of this technology, many radiologists may be unfamiliar with the technical considerations and interpretation pearls and pitfalls of PET/MR. This educational exhibit reviews the imaging technique, reporting requirements, and imaging characteristics of the most common pediatric bone tumors with 18F-FDG PET/MR. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-055
Children with cancer typically require a local MRI scan for primary tumor staging, which is often supplemented by a whole-body PET scan for whole-body staging. Over the past decade, PET-CT was the most widely used modality for whole-body staging across the world. Seven years ago, our team pioneered whole-body 18F-FDG PET-MRI of children with cancer as a "one-stop" alternative with 80% reduced radiation exposure and optimized child-tailored fast and efficient Whole-Body PET/MRI protocols. We then replaced all whole-Body PET/CT studies at our Institution with whole-body PET-MRI as the standard of care for our patients and have performed over 800 Pediatric Whole Body PET MRIs in the last three years.
The purpose of this educational exhibit is to provide a comprehensive review of whole-body PET/MRI technique, imaging patterns in common pediatric malignancies.
The first aim is to briefly explain our Institution's protocol for simultaneous PET/MRI acquisitions. Such simultaneous acquisition results in a convenient, faster, and safer approach for local and whole-body staging in one session. Furthermore, it avoids the need for repetitive anesthesia and imaging and also avoids potential ionizing radiation from PET CTs. The excellent contrast resolution in the MRI provides superior diagnostic detail compared to the CT.
The second aim will present PET/MRI case examples, where either the PET component added value to the MRI or the MRI component added value to the PET, thereby confirming the importance of this integrated hybrid imaging technology. We will present PET/MRI case examples of the following pediatric tumors:
2. Osseous Sarcomas including Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma
3. Soft-tissue Sarcomas such as Rhabdomyosarcoma, Desmoplastic small round blue cell tumor. Synovial Sarcoma, Fibrosarcoma, Epithelioid Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft part sarcoma, and Liposarcoma
5. Neuroendocrine tumors
6. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor
7. Germ cell tumors
8. Renal tumors
9. Malignant Liver tumors
10. Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis
As a result of this educational presentation, participants will be able to prescribe a PET/MRI exam for children with cancer, implement tumor-specific protocol modifications, and improve their tumor diagnoses' sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Read More
Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-033
Determine the incidence of occult malignancy detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT and whole body (WB) MRI in children. Read More