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Society for Pediatric Radiology – Poster Archive


Tumor
Showing Results from 1 to 30 of 61.

Bowman Sean,  Trinh Austin,  Tuburan Smyrna

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-070

A 4 day old female, born at term without complications and with reported proper prenatal care was referred to a tertiary care center after her parents were notified of an abnormal 17-OHP on newborn screening. Work-up for suspected congenital adrenal hyperplasia was initiated. An abdominal ultrasound showed a 2.8 x 3.6 x 3.7 cm heterogeneously hypoechoic right suprarenal mass with peripheral calcification and large feeding vessels. An MRI abdomen was then obtained, which showed a round circumscribed 3.6 x 3.5 x 3.4 cm T1 hypointense and T2 iso-hyperintense heterogeneously enhancing mass. The radiologist raised the suspicion for an adrenocortical tumor, with neuroblastoma or teratoma as less likely etiologies. An MIBG scan was then obtained, revealing absence of activity in the region of the known mass, further supporting the diagnosis of an adrenocortical neoplasm. This information, in addition to normal levels of VMA and HVA, reduced the likelihood that the mass was of neural crest origin. IR then performed an ultrasound guided biopsy of the right adrenal mass. Pathology reported features consistent with an adrenal cortical neoplasm and without features of neuroblastoma. Due to concern for potential aggressive behavior, pathology recommended complete surgical excision. There is a paucity of literature secondary to the extremely low incidence of congenital adrenal cortical neoplasms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary committee, which included pediatric surgery and radiology, was held. The consensus was that the mass would be best treated by, and is amenable to, surgical excision. At 28 days old, the patient underwent an open right adrenalectomy. Pathology confirmed an adrenal cortical neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential. The post-operative course was without complications. Per pediatric hematology-oncology recommendations, a nuclear medicine whole body bone scan was obtained and demonstrated no osteoblastic metastasis. The patient was discharged and will continue to follow up with hematology-oncology and endocrinology as an outpatient. As illustrated above, the early and correct identification of a potentially aggressive neoplasm by radiology accelerated the treatment course, allowing for potentially curative interventions. This case demonstrates the necessity for multidisciplinary management to include both diagnostic and interventional radiologists and to communicate an appropriate range of differential diagnoses, regardless of incidence. Read More

Authors:  Bowman Sean , Trinh Austin , Tuburan Smyrna

Keywords:  Adrenal, Tumor, adrenal cortical neoplasm

Sato T Shawn,  Sato Yutaka

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-084

The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System has now incorporated molecular and genetic parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities. Significant restructuring has occurred for pediatric CNS tumors. For example, medulloblastomas are classified into four genetic subtypes. Other embryonal tumors such as embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) are further defined by their molecular features. Also new entities have been added defined by both histology and molecular signatures including H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline glioma, RELA fusion-positive ependymoma and diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT).
These more homogeneous and narrowly defined entities are expected to facilitate better classification, prognostication and patient stratification for precision therapy. This also improves the design of clinical trials and experimental models.
In this presentation, we will review the new WHO classification scheme and review the imaging and as well as molecular/genetic features of pediatric CNS tumors.
Radiologists must keep up to date with updates to the WHO classification scheme to be able to better communicate with clinicians ensure optimal patient care and relevant research collaboration.
Read More

Authors:  Sato T Shawn , Sato Yutaka

Keywords:  WHO, Brain tumors

Sharma Priya,  Loubriel Daphne,  Estrin Yvonne,  Rajderkar Dhanashree

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-119

Learning objectives: This educational exhibit will review atypical ovarian neoplasms in the pediatric population. We will discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, multimodality imaging findings as seen on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) of these rare adnexal entities. Read More

Authors:  Sharma Priya , Loubriel Daphne , Estrin Yvonne , Rajderkar Dhanashree

Keywords:  Atypical ovarian masses, Adnexa, Ovarian, tumors

Gupta Ayushi,  Monforte Hector,  Schaaf William,  Kucera Jennifer

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-031

Pediatric patients can host a variety of benign and malignant renal tumors and tumor mimics. Their clinical presentation is nonspecific as patients may be asymptomatic or present with an abdominal mass, flank pain, or hematuria. Proper patient management requires an accurate diagnosis based on a combination of radiological and pathological findings. Read More

Authors:  Gupta Ayushi , Monforte Hector , Schaaf William , Kucera Jennifer

Keywords:  renal tumor, Wilms tumor, renal cell carcinoma

Jayapal Praveen,  Alharthi Omar,  Thakor Avnesh

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-018

HISTORY AND CLINICAL COURSE:A 16-year-old male presented with worsening abdominal pain, non-bloody diarrhea, and unintentional weight loss. On exam, he had diffuse abdominal tenderness and unnoticed left testicular swelling. US demonstrated a heterogeneous left testicular mass; CT demonstrated a large heterogeneous left testicular mass with extensive tumor thrombus propagating along the left gonadal vein, into the renal vein, the IVC, right atrium, right ventricle with several metastatic pulmonary emboli. The patient underwent left orchiectomy, and pathology showed testicular mixed germ cell tumor with immature teratoma and yolk sac components. The patient was referred to our institution for further management of his intravascular and intracardiac tumor components, given the patient’s pathology fell under an intermediate category based on the “Intermediate Germ Cell Consensus classification” which supports treatment with curative intent given an 80% long-term survival rate.
PROCEDURE:An open surgical approach was used to remove tumor tissue from the right heart and supra-hepatic IVC. Percutaneous endovascular thrombectomy was then used to remove the tumor from the infra-hepatic IVC and the left renal vein 24 hours after the cardiac surgery.
Step 1: Distal Embolic Control: A single disc from an Inari Flow Triever device was deployed, via the right internal jugular vein, below the level of the hepatic veins to provide distal embolic control throughout the procedure. This is an alternative application for this device.
Step2: IVC tumor removal: An Inari Clot Triever device was deployed via the right common femoral vein. Multiple 360-degree sweeps throughout the IVC to ensure intravascular tumor removal as validated on follow-up IVC venography.
Step 3: Left renal vein tumor removal: The left renal vein thrombus was removed using a combination of the Flow Triever and aspiration catheter systems. IVUS and left renal venogram confirmed the tumor removal.
FOLLOW-UP:The hospital course was uneventful. The patient was anticoagulated with a tight INR goal of 1.5-2 to balance the need for anticoagulation and avoiding the risk of bleeding from recent cardiac surgery. Chemotherapy with Bleomycin, Cisplatin, and Etoposide was initiated upon discharge and will be reviewed by surgical oncology for retroperitoneal nodal clearance later. This case demonstrates the multi-disciplinary team approach to caring for a complex case of an extensive testicular tumor in a pediatric patient.
Read More

Authors:  Jayapal Praveen , Alharthi Omar , Thakor Avnesh

Keywords:  Endovascular, thrombectomy, testicular tumor

Goncalves Fabricio,  Khrichenko Dmitry,  Martin-saavedra Juan,  Alves Cesar Augusto,  Teixeira Sara,  Andronikou Savvas,  Vossough Arastoo

Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 160

Accurate preoperative imaging diagnosis of supratentorial pediatric intraventricular tumors is not always straightforward. Conventional MRI features such as T1- and T2-weighted signal and contrast enhancement may overlap among various choroid plexus tumors and embryonal tumors. This study aimed to perform apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis, assessing various metrics in different intraventricular for histological classification. Read More

Authors:  Goncalves Fabricio , Khrichenko Dmitry , Martin-saavedra Juan , Alves Cesar Augusto , Teixeira Sara , Andronikou Savvas , Vossough Arastoo

Keywords:  Intranventricular tumors, ADC, Diffusion

Harvey Carly,  Allbery Sandra,  Powers Andria

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-074


Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis is a rare testicular tumor that falls within the category of stromal cord neoplasms. There have been less than 50 cases described in the literature with all cases being described as having a cystic component (1, 2). We present a case of a 6 month old boy presenting with unilateral scrotal swelling. Ultrasound evaluation revealed an entirely solid, hypervascular, intratesticular mass. Alpha-fetoprotein levels were negative. At surgery, radical orchiectomy was performed and pathology revealed a Juvenille Granulosa Cell Tumor.

Testicular tumors arising in the neonatal and prepubescent period are a unique set of tumors distinct from their adult counterparts. In this younger age group, germ cell tumors predominate. Of the germ cell tumors, Yolk Sac tumors are the main tumor of clinical significant, and the reason why alpha-fetoprotein is such a relevant marker (3). Stromal cell tumors account for only a small percentage of testicular tumors within this age group. When they do occur, Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumors (JGC) predominate, particularly if the child is under 1 year of age, with this tumor type being the most common testicular tumor present at birth (3,4). JGC tumors are associated with genetic and structural anomalies of the Y chromosome, ambiguous genitalia, and contralateral undescended testis. One of their defining pathologic characteristics is positive staining with Inhibin (3).To date there are no cases of metastatic JGC tumors. In all reported cases, Sonographic evaluation demonstrates a grossly multicystic tumor (2). The adult variant of Granulosa Cell tumors can appear as a solid mass with little or no cystic component and carries the risk of metastasis of approximately 20% (2). Surgical management of testicular JGC tumors has largely been radical orchiectomy but, some studies have shown tumor sparing excision to be curative in cases with salvageable testicular parenchyma (2). This finding highlights the importance of including stromal cell tumors, particularly JGC, in the differential for solid appearing testicular masses in the neonate. With more reported cases of JGC tumors of the testes, surgical management could include a more conservative approach. Although JGC tumor of the testis is not known to be malignant, given the atypical features of this tumor and similarities with its more malignant adult counterpart, close surveillance is warranted to ensure benign course.
Read More

Authors:  Harvey Carly , Allbery Sandra , Powers Andria

Keywords:  Juvenille Granulosa Cell Tumor, Testicular Tumor, Pediatric, Solid

Biyyam Deepa,  Youssfi Mostafa,  Mandell Gerald,  Taylor Steve,  Patel Mittun

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-004


Calcifying nested stromal epithelial tumor (CNSET) is a very rare primary liver tumor in children. To our knowledge, about 30 cases have been reported in literature. We describe the imaging appearance and histopathologic features of this tumor detected in a 2 year old girl who presented with an incidentally detected calcified liver lesion on a chest x-ray which was obtained for cough.
Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 5.5 centimeter sized heterogeneous mass with large coarse calcifications. MRI better demonstrated the margins of the lesion, which was predominantly hyper-intense on T2-weighted images. Large areas of signal void were seen in the superior aspect of the lesion, corresponding to the calcifications seen on CT. The lesion demonstrated restricted diffusion. Post-contrast, the lesion demonstrated enhancement in the portal venous phase with washout on the delayed phase. Initial diagnosis based on imaging findings and patient’s age was hepatoblastoma. However, serum alpha- fetoprotein (AFP) was normal, which is unusual with hepatoblastoma. Patient underwent subsequent wedge biopsy, which was proven to represent calcifying nested stromal epithelial tumor of the liver. PET/CT, obtained to evaluate for metastatic disease, demonstrated increased FDG activity within the primary hepatic lesion, with SUV Max of 3.5, with no evidence of FDG avid metastatic disease. She then underwent right hepatectomy and cholecystectomy.

No sign of tumor recurrence has been noted to date on the follow up abdominal ultrasound examination in the past 2.5 years.

Calcifying nested stromal epithelial tumor should be considered in the differential when a large heterogeneous liver tumor with coarse/ chunky calcifications is identified at imaging in the absence of elevated serum AFP in a child. Currently the standard treatment in complete surgical excision and liver transplantation if excision is not possible.
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Authors:  Biyyam Deepa , Youssfi Mostafa , Mandell Gerald , Taylor Steve , Patel Mittun

Keywords:  nested stromal epithelial, tumor, liver

Lacroix Caroline,  Ahyad Rayan,  Gupta Abha,  Chavhan Govind

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-065

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular tumor, of low malignant potential. It is typically seen in adults, but it can also less frequently affect children.

Because of its multisystem involvement, it can present in various ways both clinically and on imaging. It can present with multiple hepatic lesions and/or with multinodular lung disease simulating interstitial lung disease, infectious disease and metastatic disease among others. Multifocal bone involvement is another presentation of EHE.

One of the radiologist's daily practice challenges is that rare diseases can have significant overlap of imaging features with more frequent diagnoses (that sometimes present with atypical features). It is therefore of high relevance to know the classical and unique imaging features and signature of rare entities such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, in order to raise clinical suspicion when needed to direct appropriate diagnostic work-up. Our goal is to present a case of EHE, discuss possible clinical presentations and illustrate classical imaging findings. An overview of clinical implications of this diagnosis and of the available treatment options will also be provided.

Combining multisystem affection and characteristic imaging features, especially MRI features of liver lesions, radiologist can help to make early diagnosis of EHE that is rarely seen in children.
Read More

Authors:  Lacroix Caroline , Ahyad Rayan , Gupta Abha , Chavhan Govind

Keywords:  epithelioid, hemangioendothelioma, vascular, tumor, multisystem

Bhalla Deeksha,  Jana Manisha,  Manchanda Smita,  Bhalla Ashu,  Naranje Priyanka

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-069

Teaching points:

The spectrum of neck masses in neonates and infants (< 2 years) differs considerably from those in older children
Understand characteristic imaging appearances, particularly recognise entities that do not require sampling for diagnosis
Learn algorithmic approach to differential diagnosis based on age and lesion morphology with case based examples

Table of contents:
Introduction: Incidence, clinical considerations
Classification:
Age: Neonate
Cystic
Branchial cleft cyst
Dermoid cyst
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Solid:
Germ cell tumor
Congenital hemangioma
Neuroblastoma
Mixed
Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor (PMMT)
Teratoma

Age: Older infants
Cystic
Branchial cleft cyst
Dermoid cyst
Thyroglossal duct cyst

Solid:
Lymphoma
Granulocytic sarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Multinodular vacuolating tumor of infancy (MNTI)
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)
Fibrous tumors: Fibrous hamartoma of infancy, infantile fibrosarcoma

Vascular malformation (microcystic lymphatic, venolymphatic, arteriovenous)

Infections
Ludwig angina
Zygomycosis

Practical diagnostic algorithms based on age, location (involved neck space) and morphology
Conclusion
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Authors:  Bhalla Deeksha , Jana Manisha , Manchanda Smita , Bhalla Ashu , Naranje Priyanka

Keywords:  Neck tumor, congenital, vascular malformation

Henault Kathryn,  Kanev Paul,  O'loughlin Michael

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-054

Congenital glioblastoma multiforme (cGBM) is the rarest type of congenital brain tumors, constituting approximately 3.5% of cases according to the latest literature, with roughly 60 cases published worldwide. This specific presentation can be defined as ‘definitely congenital’, based on the 1964 classification of congenital tumors by Solitare and Krigman. The case report discusses the clinical presentation, radiologic and histologic findings, treatment, and prognosis of cGBM.

The tumor was first detected on an ultrasound at 31 weeks gestation, performed for a clinical diagnosis of mild oligohydramnios, revealing an unexpected large intracranial lesion. Prior to this finding, the pregnancy course was uneventful - the fetus was naturally conceived by a 30-year-old G2P1001 without history of infection, radiation, or trauma. No concerning maternal past medical history or use of drugs/alcohol during pregnancy. No family history of CNS malignancy was documented. MRI performed at 31 3/7 weeks confirmed a large complex cystic and solid mass lesion, bigger than previously measured on the aforementioned ultrasound, with mixed T1 and T2 signal within the left parietal/occipital lobe. Findings were concerning for a mass lesion, specifically a GBM given the size and complex signal characteristics. A second ultrasound preformed 12 days later showed even further growth, raising suspicion for a rapidly enlarging tumor. A pediatric neurosurgeon and maternal fetal medicine team following the patient had preemptively decided to deliver the fetus at 36 weeks due to increasing macrocephaly, with a plan for postnatal biopsy to establish pathology before a definitive treatment plan was ascertained. Unfortunately the mother presented to the clinic at 33 1/7 weeks with no fetal movement and an ultrasound confirmed intrauterine demise. After a classic Cesarean section, an autopsy confirmed a diagnosis of cGBM. No other congenital abnormalities were revealed.

Although fetal brain tumors are exceedingly rare, it is imperative to diagnose them in-utero due to potential prenatal and postnatal complications. Co-morbidities such as polyhydramnios, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, dystocia during delivery, and immediate postnatal heart failure should be continually evaluated for. Knowledge of an intracranial mass will allow providers to appropriately plan the mood of delivery and immediate postnatal course with necessary specialists available for immediate intervention.
Read More

Authors:  Henault Kathryn , Kanev Paul , O'loughlin Michael

Keywords:  congential brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme

Siu Navarro Youck Jen,  Poletto Erica,  Malik Archana,  Koenigsberg Robert

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-053

Congenital tumors represent only 1.5–2% of all pediatric tumors, with a prevalence of 1:12,500 to 1:27,500 live births. Tumors are considered congenital when detected during pregnancy or in the first 3 months of life (1). Nowadays, with more accessible prenatal care and fetal imaging, these tumors can be detected very early during fetal period. Some lesions are benign, while others carry high risk of morbidity and mortality postnatally. As a radiologist, it is important to be familiar with these tumors by recognizing their imaging features, imaging modality work up and differential diagnosis. Doing so, we contribute to a proper imaging evaluation, early diagnosis and management.

The objectives of this educational exhibit are:
-To describe the imaging features of some congenital tumors on different image modalities.
-To recognize and emphasize the key radiologic findings of each tumor and their differential diagnoses.
-To briefly review the literature, including etiology, epidemiology, cytopathology characteristics, diagnosis and treatment.

Pictorial cases from our Radiology Department will be used to describe the imaging features of the following entities:

1) Head/Neck:
● Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT)
● Cervical teratoma
● Hemangioma

2) Chest:
● Neuroblastoma
● Cardiac rhabdomyoma

3) Abdomen- Pelvis:
● Hepatic hemangioendothelioma
● Hepatic hemangioma
● Neuroblastoma
● Mesoblastic nephroma
● Sacrococcygeal teratoma

4) Soft tissues:
● Infantile fibrosarcoma

5) Systemic:
● Leukemia
Read More

Authors:  Siu Navarro Youck Jen , Poletto Erica , Malik Archana , Koenigsberg Robert

Keywords:  congenital tumor, neonatal tumors

England Elizabeth,  Sarma Asha,  Thomas John,  Liang Jiancong,  Snyder Elizabeth

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-011

Intrascrotal lipoblastomas are rare, benign paratesticular tumors that arise from embryologic adipose tissue and most often affect young children. Due to the rare nature of these tumors, preoperative diagnosis can be challenging, despite imaging features that are somewhat distinctive with respect to more common lesions (e.g., rhabdomyosarcoma). Prospective diagnosis, however, has potential to influence the operative management strategy (for example, minimally invasive mass excision versus radical inguinal orchidectomy). Since 2016, only two cases of preoperative imaging diagnosis of scrotal lipoblastoma have been published. This case report will describe a unique case of an incidentally found intrascrotal lipoblastoma and discuss the pertinent sonographic features of this rare entity. A 3-year-old boy initially presented for evaluation for an atrophic and undescended right testicle. During that evaluation, the patient was incidentally found to have a palpable left scrotal mass. Subsequent scrotal ultrasound showed an 2.7 x 1.9 x 2.4 cm well circumscribed ovoid mass inferior to the left testicle which was in the inguinal canal. The mass appeared predominantly hypoechoic with mild internal vascularity and also contained areas of hyperechogenicity resembling fat. The ultrasound appearance of the mass was not felt to be typical of a rhabdomyosarcoma (the most common paratesticular mass in children) and other fat-containing masses, including lipoblastoma, were suggested as diagnostic considerations. Complete excision of the left paratesticular mass was successful and subsequent scrotal orchidopexy was performed. Microscopic examination of the mass demonstrated lobules of adipocytes with occasional lipoblasts. Rearrangement of the PLAG1 (8q12.1) locus was detected, confirming the diagnosis of lipoblastoma. Although rare, prospective imaging detection of intrascrotal lipoblastoma may allow for less invasive and morbid surgical intervention and decreased risk for local recurrence. Read More

Authors:  England Elizabeth , Sarma Asha , Thomas John , Liang Jiancong , Snyder Elizabeth

Keywords:  Paratesticular tumor, Lipoblastoma

Yoon Hye-kyung,  Yoon Hee-mang

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-049

Our purpose is to show representative cases of CNS (Central Nervous System) embryonal tumors in children with discussion of the new WHO (World Health Organization) classification system recently issued in 2016. Read More

Authors:  Yoon Hye-kyung , Yoon Hee-mang

Keywords:  Pediatric, Brain tumor, Medulloblastoma

Carmona Daniela,  Erripa Jose,  Lostra Juliana,  Rizzi Ana,  Dardanelli Esteban,  Moguillanky Slvia,  Lipsich Jose

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-017

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in children are not well characterized, different adult rare entity. It corresponds to a heterogeneous group of lesions for correct classification requires histological, immunohistochemical evaluation and in some cases also adds to the cytogenetic diagnosis. We describe the findings of pediatric GIST. Read More

Authors:  Carmona Daniela , Erripa Jose , Lostra Juliana , Rizzi Ana , Dardanelli Esteban , Moguillanky Slvia , Lipsich Jose

Keywords:  gastrointestinal stromal tumors, CD17 +, children, imaging

Infante Ignacio,  Amoretti Natalia,  Roa Cintia,  Rizzi Ana,  Lipsich Jose

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-004 (S)

Liver tumors account for 1-4% of all pediatrics malignancies. Most primary liver tumours in children are malignant, but one-third are benign. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver, though rare is the second most frequent benign liver mass in children. Generally occurs in children less than 2 years of age with a male preponderance (male: female, 2:1). We report a case of mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver in an 11 month-old female presented at the emergency department with abdominal distension of two months of evolution associated with intermittent vomiting, diarrhea and chronic malnutrition. Abnormal labs included elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels (15006 ng/ml) and non detectable beta Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin. The liver function was normal. Imaging demonstrated an abnormal abdominal X-ray, with soft tissues mass enlargement and displacement of bowel. An ultrasound revealed a mixed mass (cystic-solid) liver in segment VII. On colour-Doppler flow imaging, there was evidence of increased vascularity. Contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen in arterial and venous phases showed a large cystic mass in the left lobe of the liver, with peripheral solid tissue, very vascularized in both vascular secuences. Percutaneous biopsy was done and pathology confirmed mesenchymal hamartoma. The patient underwent left hepatectomy. The patient evolved successfully. Read More

Authors:  Infante Ignacio , Amoretti Natalia , Roa Cintia , Rizzi Ana , Lipsich Jose

Keywords:  Cystic Mass, tumor, Imaging

Lionberg Alex,  Ong Seng

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-096

Neuroblastoma is recognized as having a broad spectrum of clinical behavior in children diagnosed with the disease. Some tumors exhibit aggressive characteristics and portend a poor prognosis, while others that appear aggressive spontaneously regress. Accurately identifying high risk neuroblastoma is important in determining which patients will benefit most from intense chemotherapy, which unfortunately carries a risk of significant adverse effects later in life. Historically this has been difficult, as the classification schemes vary in different parts of the world, limiting the ability to pool data and improve prognostication. In recent years, efforts among experts around the globe have led to a consensus on the most evidenced based approach to staging. The aim of this educational exhibit is to describe the new standardized language for radiology reports, which will contribute to accurate staging and improve treatment for patients with neuroblastoma. Additionally, key imaging features highlighting image defined risk factors will be presented. Read More

Authors:  Lionberg Alex , Ong Seng

Keywords:  Neuroblastoma, Oncology, Tumor Staging

Chambers Greg,  Zarfati Angelo,  Malthete Cellier Cecile,  Adamsbaum Catherine,  Branchereau Sophie,  Franchi-abella Stephanie

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-009

Describe imaging features of pediatric focal nodular hyperplasia (pFNH) in a large cohort of children with clinical, radiological and surgical management with a significant follow up period. We aim to provide an algorithm to treat these patients using the evidence base we have created. Read More

Authors:  Chambers Greg , Zarfati Angelo , Malthete Cellier Cecile , Adamsbaum Catherine , Branchereau Sophie , Franchi-abella Stephanie

Keywords:  Liver, Tumor

Carrasco Rosario,  Hulett-bowling Rebecca

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-094


Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare, intrathoracic, malignant tumor in the pediatric population with approximately 500 cases reported worldwide. Over 90% of these cases are in patients below the age of 6. The spectral morphology of PPB is used to classify the lesions along a continuum from the least malignant to the most malignant: type I (cystic) 14%, type II (solid and cystic) 48%, and type III (solid) 38%. Congenital lung cysts are not known to degenerate to become PPB, but the cystic type I PPB may progress to the more aggressive type II or type III PPB. In addition, PPB is associated with cystic nephroma in 30% of cases, and has been linked to the DICER1 mutation which puts these patients at risk for other tumors. For example, the genetic basis of the PPB familial syndrome (which is the heterozygous loss of function mutation of DICER1) includes PPB, cystic nephroma, ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, nodular hyperplasia and differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland, pituitary blastoma, pineoblastoma, nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, and cervical embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
The purpose of this educational report is to demonstrate various presentations and identify distinguishing features of each type of PPB as seen on initial radiographs with correlation on subsequent CT scans. Only cases where the PPB and type were confirmed by pathology are included. At least one case of the PPB familial syndrome will also be presented. Positive DICER1 mutations will be provided when available, as this information is increasingly used to aid in the treatment decisions. Early recognition of PPB with timely investigation for cystic nephroma and DICER1 mutations can lead to improved patient outcomes.
Read More

Authors:  Carrasco Rosario , Hulett-bowling Rebecca

Keywords:  pediatric, pleural, tumor

Lacroix Caroline,  Balamuth Naomi,  Miller Tamara,  Shekdar Karuna

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-044

To describe the imaging manifestations of orbit involvement in extra orbital oncological processes in the pediatric population. Read More

Authors:  Lacroix Caroline , Balamuth Naomi , Miller Tamara , Shekdar Karuna

Keywords:  Tumor, Orbital, Neoplastic

Luo Yu,  Crane Gabriella

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-123

Bone and soft tissue tumor in pediatric hands and feet are not infrequently encountered in pediatric patient. The lesion can be benign and malignant. Some are specific on imaging and some are nonspecific requiring biopsy. Recognizing imaging specific findings and correctly triage the patient is important in patient management. Read More

Authors:  Luo Yu , Crane Gabriella

Keywords:  Musculoskeltal, tumor, hands and feet

Lyon Jane,  Le Hau

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-014

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor (IMT) is now considered a distinct entity and a true neoplasm within the heterogeneous group of inflammatory mass-forming tumors. It is now recognized as a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic neoplasm with intermediate biological potential. It occurs predominantly in children. Abnormalities on Chromosome 2p23 with a rearrangement of the ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) locus causes abnormal tyrosine kinase receptor expression. Chromosomal abnormalities suggest a clonal origin and not just a reactive process or “pseudotumor,” as these masses have been categorized in the past. Up to sixty percent of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors express ALK which may help establish the diagnosis of the inflammatory mass as an IMT. The masses can occur in a variety of locations and have non-specific imaging findings, which will be reviewed.

We present three cases, each in a different location:

Case 1: 7 year old female presents with chronic cough and persistent right middle lobe abnormality on chest x-ray with concern for pneumonia or inhaled foreign body. She was found to have a soft tissue mass in her right mainstem bronchus with extra-luminal extension. CT, MR and gross surgical photos of the endobronchial IMT will be presented.

Case 2: 20 month old male presents with hepatomegaly, jaundice and elevated bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and liver function tests. Ultrasound and MR images of the pancreatic head IMT causing biliary obstruction will be presented.

Case 3: 13 year old male presents with back, leg and pelvic pain. MR, CT and gross surgical photos of the right posterior pelvic sidewall IMT, which had evidence of nerve entrapment at biopsy, will be presented.
The imaging, pathological and surgical findings from these patients, where available, will be presented and reviewed.

We suggest that the radiologist consider Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor in the differential diagnosis for inflammatory and fibrous lesions in children.
Read More

Authors:  Lyon Jane , Le Hau

Keywords:  Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor, Pediatric, Neoplastic

Aldraihem Ahmed,  Abdeen Nishard

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-047

To determine the inter-observer agreement in measurement of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in pediatric brain tumors, using normal grey matter as a control. Read More

Authors:  Aldraihem Ahmed , Abdeen Nishard

Keywords:  brain tumor, T2* perfusion, interobserver agreement

Emerson Miriam,  Isaacson Jared,  Chauvin Nancy,  Dahmoush Hisham

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-016

Lipoblastoma is a benign, rare pediatric mesenchymal tumor that develops in a myriad of anatomic locations. The imaging appearance of lipoblastoma sometimes overlaps with other tumors. Familiarity with lipoblastoma and a knowledge of benign and malignant tumors with similar imaging features will benefit practicing Radiologists, Pediatricians, and Surgeons. Our exhibit aims to expand awareness of lipoblastoma by providing a comprehensive pictorial review of cases showcasing representative MRI, CT, sonographic, and radiographic images. Suggestive imaging features of lipoblastoma that distinguish them from other fat-containing lesions will be highlighted and an emphasis on the discussion of lipoblastoma within the spectrum of pediatric lipomatous lesions will be detailed. Read More

Authors:  Emerson Miriam , Isaacson Jared , Chauvin Nancy , Dahmoush Hisham

Keywords:  Lipoblastoma, Tumor, Mass

Murcia Diana,  Myers Ross,  Estroff Judy,  Callahan Michael

Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 125

Identify the most common diagnoses of superficial head and neck lesions in children under 4 years of age, and correlate imaging and pathologic findings. Read More

Authors:  Murcia Diana , Myers Ross , Estroff Judy , Callahan Michael

Keywords:  infant, Tumor, Ultrasound

Devkota Laxman,  Bhavane Rohan,  Badachhape Andrew,  Veeramachaneni Ratna,  Stupin Igor,  Bhandari Prajwal,  Ghaghada Ketan,  Sikora Andrew,  Annapragada Ananth

Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 153

The incidence of head and neck malignancies among children has increased substantially in the last five decades. The immunosuppressive tumor micro-environment (TME) represents a major roadblock in the treatment of head and neck tumors. We have demonstrated previously that an elevated level of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the tumor correlates directly with a poor prognosis, and that MDSC levels can be reduced using inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In this pre-clinical study, we utilized non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) to monitor tumor responses to TME-directed combinatorial therapies that included iNOS inhibition, immunomodulation, checkpoint inhibition, and radiation. Read More

Authors:  Devkota Laxman , Bhavane Rohan , Badachhape Andrew , Veeramachaneni Ratna , Stupin Igor , Bhandari Prajwal , Ghaghada Ketan , Sikora Andrew , Annapragada Ananth

Keywords:  Immunotherapy, Tumor, Imaging

Aviado Randy,  Vorona Gregory,  Tye Gary,  Ritter Ann,  Wang Zhihong,  Mahdi Eman,  Mishra Chakradhar,  Jones Kathryn,  Urbine Jacqueline

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-067

The spectrum of imaging findings associated with intracranial germ cell tumors extends well beyond the typical suprasellar and/or pineal region masses. It is imperative that radiologists who interpret pediatric neuroimaging studies be familiar with the range of imaging findings associated with intracranial germ cell tumors, particularly as the appropriate suggestion of germ cell tumor as a diagnosis can have a significant impact on the initial surgical plan. In our case series we will review the typical imaging (CT and MRI) findings of both germinoma and nongerminomatous germ cell tumors, including metastasis and local invasion/extension. We will also review how intracranial germ cell tumors can be multifocal and how they can involve unusual areas such as the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and septal leaflets. MR spectroscopic findings associated with pediatric intracranial germ cell tumors will also be reviewed, including how these findings can be very helpful to differentiate from other similar-appearing pathologies. Finally, we will briefly discuss the treatment and prognosis of intracranial germ cell tumors. Read More

Authors:  Aviado Randy , Vorona Gregory , Tye Gary , Ritter Ann , Wang Zhihong , Mahdi Eman , Mishra Chakradhar , Jones Kathryn , Urbine Jacqueline

Keywords:  Germ cell tumor, germinoma, teratoma

Sharma Karun,  Yadav Bhupender,  Vellody Ranjith,  Plishker William,  Shekhar Raj

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-039

Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy and ablation are established techniques to diagnose and treat solid tumors. However, some tumors are not adequately visualized with CT, even after IV contrast administration, because of transient enhancement. Many of these “CT-occult” tumors are optimally seen on preprocedural MRI or PET scans. To enable targeting of such tumors, we developed software that fuses MRI/PET images to intraprocedural CT in real time. The software corrects for soft-tissue deformations which occur due to differences in patient positioning or motion. The fusion imaging is generated after each intraprocedural CT scan and takes advantage of all available imaging data. We report retrospective evaluation of this fusion method for pediatric interventional radiology procedures. Read More

Authors:  Sharma Karun , Yadav Bhupender , Vellody Ranjith , Plishker William , Shekhar Raj

Keywords:  multimodality guidance, image fusion, CT-occult tumor

Dahmoush Hisham,  Chauvin Nancy

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-046

Massive ovarian edema (MOE) is a rare benign condition that affects childbearing women including girls. MOE is thought to result from intermittent or partial torsion of the ovary compromising the venous and lymphatic drainage but with preserved arterial supply. The clinical features of MOE are nonspecific and can simulate tumors, frequently resulting in oopherectomy. Fertility-sparing surgery may be undertaken if the diagnosis is considered prospectively and intraoperatively with a wedge biopsy, avoiding unnecessary resection of the affected ovary. We present clinical presentations and imaging features that should alert pediatric radiologists to the diagnosis of MOE. Read More

Authors:  Dahmoush Hisham , Chauvin Nancy

Keywords:  ovarian, torsion, tumor, edema