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Society for Pediatric Radiology – Poster Archive

Showing Results from 1 to 30 of 85.

Ramirez Suarez Karen,  Miranda Schaeubinger Monica,  Barton Katherine,  Riedesel Erica,  Otero Hansel

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-022

The Choosing Wisely initiative, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Foundation in collaboration with over 80 medical societies and organizations, was launched in 2012 in the United States and Canada. Choosing Wisely is a response to the estimation that roughly 20% of current medical tests and therapies lack justification, provide no value, and may pose risks. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) became a participant in Choosing Wisely from the start, resulting in 16 pediatric specialty-specific lists designed to assist AAP members in responsible healthcare resource management. While pediatric radiology did not develop its own list, imaging recommendations were included on fully half of the published AAP/Choosing Wisely lists. Read More

Authors:  Ramirez Suarez Karen , Miranda Schaeubinger Monica , Barton Katherine , Riedesel Erica , Otero Hansel

Keywords:  Pediatric, Imaging, Radiology

Huang Yungui,  Krishnamurthy Rajesh,  Hu Houchun,  Luna John,  Krishnamurthy Ramkumar,  Lubeley Lacey,  Buskirk Tricia,  Karczewski Arleen,  Garrett Whitney,  Lin Simon,  Mcallister Aaron

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-040

Background: Image quality in MRI is often degraded by patient motion. To reduce the need for repeat exams, sedation or general anesthesia is used in pediatric patients. This requires additional clinical staff, and leads to increased scheduling wait times and overall procedure times that impact workflow. Many institutions prepare children for MRI using mock-up replicas. While effective in acclimating patients to the MRI environment, the availability of mock-up practices are often limited. Mock-ups also require physical space and do not simulate the full MRI environment and exam experience.

Purpose: We build an affordable, scalable, and portable immersive virtual reality (IVR) platform for simulating MRI exams. Specifically, we designed an IVR environment that accurately mimics a Siemens 3 Tesla suite within our Radiology practice, including intricate details such as room size, color, lighting, ancillary equipment, pulse sequence audio, and background noise. The IVR platform also attempts to simulate the complete sequence of events and environments a child will experience during an exam, including the check-in process, interactions with staff (e.g., nurses, technologists), the waiting area and changing rooms, the positioning and motion of the MRI table, placement of coils, and within-exam instructions, such as breath-holds. Our platform also allows the patient to move around in the VR space and interact with the environment. Additionally, the platform can be easily converted to mimic any other MR suite. We hypothesize that our platform can be easily adopted by Child Life and hospital staff to quickly acclimate a patient and assess whether he/she can suitably undergo an MRI exam without sedation or general anesthesia.

We believe the IVR platform can overcome the limitations of mock-up replicas. First, IVR has a smaller footprint and is scalable and portable across the hospital. This allows multiple IVR sessions to be held in parallel. Second, IVR can give the patient a hospital-specific and scan-specific first-person experience. The patient can interact with realistic 3D representations of the MRI environment and processes. Our current implementation of IVR was developed using HTC VIVE headsets with a dedicated laptop for control. To further improve portability, the IVR setup can be adopted using simple goggles and handheld devices. This will enable future IVR sessions to be conducted at the bedside, in patient’s homes, and in referring physician offices.
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Authors:  Huang Yungui , Krishnamurthy Rajesh , Hu Houchun , Luna John , Krishnamurthy Ramkumar , Lubeley Lacey , Buskirk Tricia , Karczewski Arleen , Garrett Whitney , Lin Simon , Mcallister Aaron

Keywords:  magnetic resonance imaging, virtual reality, simulation

Ly Juan Domingo,  Subramanian Subramanian,  Rajan Deepa,  Greene Stephanie,  Zuccoli Giulio

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-010

An 11-year-old female presented with 3-weeks history of intractable vomiting, nausea, blurred vision, vertical nystagmus and ataxia with gait instability. A CT scan revealed a small calcification at the left craniocervical junction (CJJ) and mild effacement of the fourth ventricle (Figure). MRI showed a partially-enhancing medulla oblongata lesion and a non-enhancing cystic exophytic lesion abutting the left pre-medullary cistern. There was avid thick enhancement along the ventrolateral surface of the medulla oblongata. No restricted diffusion was present. MR spectroscopy demonstrated decreased NAA and elevated lactates. Based on imaging findings, a brainstem glioma with exophytic component was suspected. The CBC, CMP, ESR and CRP were normal. The patient underwent suboccipital craniectomy with C1 laminectomy, and an exophytic pale gray mass was identified. Multiple specimens were taken, and frozen diagnosis showed only necrosis. The cyst wall was resected. Resection of the brainstem component was limited by neurophysiology. Histologically, the lesion consisted of a fibrous cyst wall lined by columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, findings reflecting a neuroenteric cyst. No glial tissue was identified. Gram stain and Grocott stain were negative for bacterial and fungal specimens. An empiric treatment with wide spectrum antibiotic was started. Follow-up MRI demonstrated near complete resolution of edema in the medulla oblongata, and substantial decrease in enhancement in anterolateral exophytic component and patient has substantially improved clinically. In retrospect, a sinus tract extended from the cystic lesion at the craniocervical junction into the brainstem causing edema, inflammation and enhancement which resolved once the cyst was surgically decompressed.

This case shows a neuroenteric cyst connected to the brainstem, through a sinus tract leading to chronic inflammation and infection, resulting in imaging findings resembling a brainstem glioma. Surgical decompression of the cyst and antibiotic treatment resulted in resolution of the brainstem lesion.
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Authors:  Ly Juan Domingo , Subramanian Subramanian , Rajan Deepa , Greene Stephanie , Zuccoli Giulio

Keywords:  Neurenteric, magnetic resonance imaging MRI, glioma

Noga Michelle,  Tham Edythe,  Punithakumar Kumaradevan

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-034

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is commonly used in evaluation of patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Impaired peak strain by echocardiography in TOF has been associated with adverse clinical outcome. Assessment of myocardial deformation (strain) using novel CMR software may provide prognostic information in TOF. Because of ventricular interaction, abnormal left ventricle (LV) mechanics are seen in echocardiography speckle tracking. We aimed to determine correlates of right (RV) and LV function using LV diastolic filling analysis in patients with repaired TOF. Read More

Authors:  Noga Michelle , Tham Edythe , Punithakumar Kumaradevan

Keywords:  Cardiac, magnetic resonance imaging, Tetralogy of Fallot

Venkatakrishna Shyam Sunder,  Chacko Anith,  Schoeman Sean,  Andronikou Savvas

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-029

Effective text-based communication, through radiologist reports, of imaging findings in term Hypoxic Ischemic Injury (HII) to family members, non-radiologist colleagues and members of the legal profession can be extremely challenging. Utilization of 3D printed models, where the actual findings of the brain can be communicated via tactile perception and rotating/grasping the models is a potential solution which has not been tested in practice. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different groups, comprising trained radiologists, non-radiologist physicians and non-physicians, in the detection of gross disease of the cerebral cortex from 3D printed brain models derived from MRI scans of children.
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Authors:  Venkatakrishna Shyam Sunder , Chacko Anith , Schoeman Sean , Andronikou Savvas

Keywords:  Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 3D Printing, Hypoxic Ischemic Injury

Sawyer David,  Mushtaq Raza,  Vedantham Srinivasan,  Udayasankar Unni

Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 096

Acute appendicitis represents an important cause of abdominal pain in pediatric patients. Although imaging plays an increasingly important role in the rapid diagnosis and management of this condition, there is no universally accepted strategy for imaging children suspected of having acute appendicitis. Ultrasound and computed tomography have been used most commonly, but there is rising interest in the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to its lack of ionizing radiation or need for intravenous contrast. Recent research has shown that MRI has high diagnostic performance when employed as a first-line test. However, when considering the generalizability of MRI outside of a specialized tertiary care center, the question of operator dependence arises. To determine the performance of MRI when interpreted by readers with limited experience, we performed a retrospective review of preliminary MRI interpretations rendered by radiology residents at our institution, compared with final (attending radiologist) interpretations. Read More

Authors:  Sawyer David , Mushtaq Raza , Vedantham Srinivasan , Udayasankar Unni

Keywords:  Acute appendicitis, Magnetic resonance imaging

Brahee Deborah,  Towbin Alexander

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-028

Pediatric pathology involving the jejunum is more common than one might initially expect. Early recognition of the important imaging characteristic, atypical findings, and useful imaging tools/techniques in the evaluation of jejunal pathology is important in prompt diagnosis and management of these patients.

In this educational exhibit we will present a series of cases involving pathology of the jejunum encountered in the pediatric population. We will focus on important pathologies affecting a difficult to image and sometimes forgotten portion of the intestine.

A range of acute, emergent and post-surgical cases are presented. Using an interactive, quiz based approach we will discuss the following pediatric pathologies that may affect the jejunum of pediatric patients from neonates to teenagers with multimodality imaging and pathologic examples:
Meconium plug syndrome
Foreign body
Small bowel intussusception
Graft versus host disease
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Authors:  Brahee Deborah , Towbin Alexander

Keywords:  Gastrointestinal, Pediatric, Imaging

Walcutt Julie,  Love Terri

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-027

Introduction: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a relatively new subcategory of acute flaccid paralysis affecting children, which has gained increasing attention in the medical community and media in recent years. AFM is characterized by rapid onset acute flaccid limb weakness with spinal cord lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predominantly involving the gray matter. Cranial nerve involvement has also been described. The severity of AFM nearly always requires hospitalization for supportive care, which may include mechanical ventilation. Evidence is lacking regarding the utility of specific therapies, although patients have been treated with intravenous immune globulin, steroids, and antiviral therapy. Unfortunately, though neurological improvement may occur, the majority of patients are left with persistent deficits.

We present the imaging findings of three children with varying presentations and outcomes of acute flaccid myelitis treated at a tertiary care children’s hospital.

Case 1: An 11-year-old girl developed severe upper extremity weakness requiring weeks of inpatient rehabilitation with plan for evaluation for nerve transfer. MRI showed abnormal increased T2 signal of nearly the entire spinal cord, most notable in the cervical spinal cord.

Case 2: A 9-year-old boy positive for Enterovirus presented with bilateral upper and lower extremity weakness, whose symptoms ultimately resolved. MRI of the brain and full spine were normal except for a thoracic spinal cord syrinx, which was felt to be incidental.

Case 3: A 2-year-old girl with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed bilateral upper extremity weakness and lower extremity areflexia during a hospitalization for an acute viral illness, complicated by chronic ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. MRI demonstrated enhancing T2 signal in the brainstem and cervical and thoracic spinal cord.

Discussion: Acute flaccid myelitis is an important pediatric neurological disorder of rapid clinical onset frequently resulting in persistent neurological deficits. Radiologists serve an important role in establishing the diagnosis by identifying this disease’s characteristic MRI findings.
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Authors:  Walcutt Julie , Love Terri

Keywords:  weakness, imaging

Vijapura Charmi,  Dennhardt Joel,  Fuortes Michaelangelo,  Policeni Bruno,  Sato Yutaka,  Sato T Shawn

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-103

1. Review the normal development and anatomy of the anterior skull base.
2. Describe the variety of pathologies affecting the anterior cranial fossa in the pediatric age group with a focus on the typical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics.
3. Discuss clinical management and imaging follow up of anterior cranial fossa pathology.
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Authors:  Vijapura Charmi , Dennhardt Joel , Fuortes Michaelangelo , Policeni Bruno , Sato Yutaka , Sato T Shawn

Keywords:  Anterior Cranial Fossa, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography

Dennhardt Joel,  Fuortes Michaelangelo,  Vijapura Charmi,  Policeni Bruno,  Sato Yutaka,  Sato T Shawn

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-089

1) Review the normal development and anatomy of the posterior skull base.
2) Describe the variety of pathologies affecting the posterior cranial fossa in the pediatric age group with a focus on the typical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics.
3) Discuss clinical management and imaging follow up of posterior cranial fossa pathology.
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Authors:  Dennhardt Joel , Fuortes Michaelangelo , Vijapura Charmi , Policeni Bruno , Sato Yutaka , Sato T Shawn

Keywords:  Skull base, Posterior Cranial Fossa, Magnetic resonance imaging

Stanley Parker,  Stanley Charles

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-010 (T)

In 2017, roughly 2 trillion (2,000,000,000,000) medical images were produced, reviewed, reported, archived, and used in the detection and management of disease. Based on historical trends, this number has doubled every 5 years and is accelerating. This explosive growth in imaging data has created major opportunities for the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The question is less whether radiologists, and technologists, will be replaced by AI (they will not) and more about whether we could survive without AI. Although intelligent algorithms have been used for some time in segments of the imaging field, new methods of machine learning, based particularly on “deep learning”, are much more powerful. Many of the deep learning publications today point to the promise of significant advances in efficiency, precision, reproducibility, and prognostic abilities.
If AI will not replace radiologists/technologists but rather augment them with tools to meet the rising demands for diagnostic imaging, then it is imperative that we have a basic understanding of the concepts and language that defines this area of knowledge. In the not so distant past the average technologist understood the basics of film processing but wouldn’t even recognize the words DICOM or EMR; we are now at that point of change with AI. Deep learning, machine learning, neural networks, ground truth, the list goes on. The goal of this presentation is to provide a basic framework of the concepts, terminology, and references to how AI has, and likely, will be employed in medical imaging, thus making us better practitioners and partners with this technology.
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Authors:  Stanley Parker , Stanley Charles

Keywords:  Artificial Intelligence, Medical Imaging, Technologist

Tsang Brian,  Gupta Aaryan,  Takahashi Marcelo,  Ola Tolulope,  Baffi Henrique,  Doria Andrea

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-031

1) To systematically review the uses of AI for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessment of primary pediatric cancer and identify common literature topics and knowledge gaps. 2) To assess the adherence of the existing literature to the Checklist for Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging (CLAIM) guidelines. Read More

Authors:  Tsang Brian , Gupta Aaryan , Takahashi Marcelo , Ola Tolulope , Baffi Henrique , Doria Andrea

Keywords:  Artificial intelligence, Pediatric cancer, Magnetic resonance imaging

Sarrami Amir Hossein,  Wang Hongzhi,  Baratto Lucia,  Syeda-mahmood Tanveer,  Daldrup-link Heike

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-078

Medical Imaging has a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of pediatric cancer patients by providing information about tumor location and quantitative measures of tumor size and metabolic activity at baseline as well as during and after therapy. The standard imaging plan for staging and re-staging of pediatric malignancies includes a high-resolution MRI or CT scan of the local tumor and whole body staging for the detection of metastases on CT, MRI and/or PET scans. Children with lymphomas, sarcomas, germ cell tumors and a few other tumor types are referred to whole body 18F-FDG PET scanning, either coupled with CT or MRI. Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms can facilitate staging and re-staging of cancers in children by providing 1) rapid detection and delineation of tumoral lesions, 2) automated measurements of tumoral size and metabolic activity, 3) relating tumor measurements to internal standard such as liver and blood pool, 4) assigning a score according to tumor-specific staging systems.

Detecting tumors on a whole-body scan is a challenging task, especially in children whose organs undergo changes in size and composition with increasing age. Moreover, the tumors in children can arise from almost anywhere in the body, from head to toe. With successful applications on object detection, AI methods are promising for automatic tumor detection from whole-body scans as well. In this tutorial, we will introduce a few popular AI methods for such purpose. These methods include U-Net, Vision Transformers (ViT), and the hybrid of the above methods such as O-Net Transformer or TransUNet.
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Authors:  Sarrami Amir Hossein , Wang Hongzhi , Baratto Lucia , Syeda-mahmood Tanveer , Daldrup-link Heike

Keywords:  Hybrid Imaging, Artificial Intelligence, Cancer

Haddad Sophie,  Foran Ann,  Tierradentro-garcia Luis,  Ho Fung Victor M,  Hwang Misun

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-025

Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a significant cause of severe long term neurological impairment and mortality in the newborn. It develops in two stages; the ischemic phase caused by hypoxia leading to cytotoxic edema, followed by the reperfusion phase with the release of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative damage and vasogenic edema. Imaging plays a key role in diagnosis, management, and treatment of HIE. It also offers important prognostic information. MRI remains the preferred imaging modality.
Microvascular imaging (MVI) is a novel advanced Doppler ultrasound (US) technique that permits visualization of the microvasculature without the administration of contrast agents. It enhances the visualization of flow signal in the microvessels and helps reveal functional insights into the brain at high resolution.

A female newborn of 32 weeks of gestation was delivered by urgent C-section following absent fetal movements and suspected placental abruption. She was born to a mother with a reported exposure to cocaine with a last use the week prior to delivery. At birth, no pulse was detected, and CPR was initiated immediately. O2 saturation remained low during resuscitation despite intubation and a FiO2 of 100%. Return of spontaneous circulation was noted 50 minutes after birth. Following birth, the patient was diagnosed with severe HIE and had multiple seizures. Her physical exam revealed fixed and cloudy pupils with a diameter of 4 mm and no brainstem reflexes. At one day of life, a brain US was done and displayed diffusely increased echogenicity of the parenchyma and crowding of the cortical gyri concerning for cerebral edema. MVI revealed markedly increased microvascular perfusion in the basal ganglia, thalami, and periventricular region consistent with post-ischemic reperfusion in the setting of HIE. MRI showed diffusion restriction throughout the brain including the medial temporal lobes, hippocampi, thalami, basal ganglia, and frontoparietal cortex. Also noted was extensive hyperintense signal abnormality on T2-weighted sequences within both the gray and white matter with loss of the gray-white matter differentiation and moderate sulcal effacement. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of severe HIE.

In our case, MVI demonstrated marked hyperperfusion in the basal ganglia, thalami and periventricular region. Whether this MVI flow signature can prognosticate poor clinical outcomes, it warrants further investigation.
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Authors:  Haddad Sophie , Foran Ann , Tierradentro-garcia Luis , Ho Fung Victor M , Hwang Misun

Keywords:  Microvascular Imaging, Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

Brahee Deborah,  Chan Andrea,  Emery Kathleen,  Cornwall Roger,  Maloney Thomas

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-048

Physeal injuries can result in premature physeal fusion. MR imaging is useful for mapping these bony physeal bridges. Resection of the bony bridge does not reliably restore normal physeal function. We have observed subtle loss of the normal low signal intensity line of the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) extending beyond areas of physeal bar formation in some patients with prior growth plate fractures. This loss is a marker of disrupted endochondral ossification and likely reflects a more extensive region of physeal damage that might be used to better predict treatment outcomes. Given the subjectivity of visual ZPC assessment, we sought to develop a quantitative 3D map of the periphyseal area of the distal radius using a high resolution 3D fast/turbo spin echo sequence. Read More

Authors:  Brahee Deborah , Chan Andrea , Emery Kathleen , Cornwall Roger , Maloney Thomas

Keywords:  Physis, MRI, Imaging

Jin Annie,  Bao Shashan

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-015

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a common pediatric soft tissue cancer with about 31% of cases in the urinary tract and 25% of cases in the head and neck. Although rhabdomyosarcomas are common, primary intrahepatic rhabdomyosarcomas are very rare and have a poor prognosis. In fact, there have only been 20 reported cases from 1956 through 2017, and the mean survival time of 9.25 months.

A 3-year-old male with a history of constipation presented with a 3-days of low-grade fevers of 99-100 F, periumbilical pain, and anorexia. On physical exam, there was a palpable, tender RUQ mass. Labs showed an elevated ALT of 159, AST of 179, and alkaline phosphatase of 748. A radiograph of the abdomen showed a soft tissue opacity in the right upper quadrant which displaced the large and small bowel loops. Further imaging included an ultrasound, CT, and MRI. The ultrasound confirmed a large mostly solid mass in the right hepatic lobe. CT imaging showed a large heterogeneous liver mass measuring 10.5 x 10.0 x 14.0 cm. The mass extended superiorly to the dome of the liver, involved the caudate lobe, and compressed the IVC. An indeterminate lucency of the right femoral neck was also noted. A follow up MRI showed that the liver mass displaced the hepatic veins, main portal vein and right portal vein. Additionally, innumerable lesions were found on the axial skeleton and periportal lymphadenopathy was seen suggesting metastasis. PET scan further confirmed bony metastasis of the right femur. Initially, hepatoblastoma was highest on the differential. However, liver wedge biopsy showed myxoid spindle cell areas and small round blue cell areas. These findings favored the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma as opposed to hepatoblastoma which would have had an epithelial component. Bone marrow biopsy further confirmed metastasis. As a result of this diagnosis, the patient was started on vincristine, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide. Pain was controlled with morphine and acetaminophen. Nausea was controlled with Ativan, Zofran, Reglan, and Benadryl. The patient’s abdominal distension and constipation responded well to a stool regimen and multiple enemas. The patient was discharged in stable condition with oncology follow up.

Hepatic rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare malignancy, and early diagnosis and treatment has been beneficial in prolongation of mean survival time. Diagnostic imaging modalities and pathology findings are an essential part of the work up and can be used to guide the treatment and management.
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Authors:  Jin Annie , Bao Shashan

Keywords:  Hepatic Rhabdomyosarcoma, Spindle Cell, Diagnostic Imaging

Vargas M Cecilia,  Crido Silvina,  Quintero Karina,  Alonso Jose,  Rizzi Ana,  Pibernous J,  Lipsich Jose,  Moguillanky Slvia

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-018

Aortic dissection in children is often associated with congenital heart disease (bicuspid aortic valve or aortic coarctation), collagenopathies or serious injuries. It rarely arises as a differential diagnosis in the presence of thoracic or abdominal pain in an apparently healthy child. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial to their survival.
Our purpose is describe the clinical and images characteristics that allowed to diagnose .
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Authors:  Vargas M Cecilia , Crido Silvina , Quintero Karina , Alonso Jose , Rizzi Ana , Pibernous J , Lipsich Jose , Moguillanky Slvia

Keywords:  aortic dissection, stent-grafts, imaging, Chronic hypertension

Mohamed Ezzelarab Soliman Magdy,  Doria Andrea,  Bouskill Vanessa,  Mohanta Arun,  Zhang Ningning,  Zhou Alex,  Jarrin Jose,  Huo Ai Hua,  Wu Runhui,  Peng Yun

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-058

POC-US aims at shortening the scanning and interpretation time being easy to use by clinicians and allied health professionals at the time of patients’ physical examination. Our purposes are: 1. To compare POC-US to detailed US and MRI in evaluating hemophilic arthropathy. 2. To point out limitations of POC-US that can decrease its accuracy. 3. To propose strategies to refine protocols. Read More

Authors:  Mohamed Ezzelarab Soliman Magdy , Doria Andrea , Bouskill Vanessa , Mohanta Arun , Zhang Ningning , Zhou Alex , Jarrin Jose , Huo Ai Hua , Wu Runhui , Peng Yun

Keywords:  hemophilic arthropathy, imaging, point of care ultrasound

Matsubara Yoshiko,  Miyazaki Osamu,  Nosaka Shunsuke,  Kosuga Motomichi,  Okuyama Torayuki,  Awai Kazuo

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-002

Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is approved for the treatment of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) I: Hurler syndrome (IH), Hurler-Scheie syndrome (IHS) and Scheie syndrome (IS), II: Hunter syndrome, and VI: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. However, ERT is thought to have no therapeutic effect on the central nervous system (CNS) because the enzyme could not permeate through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We aimed to assess CNS involvement in MPS at the start of ERT and to evaluate the interval changes demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over a long-term follow up. Read More

Authors:  Matsubara Yoshiko , Miyazaki Osamu , Nosaka Shunsuke , Kosuga Motomichi , Okuyama Torayuki , Awai Kazuo

Keywords:  mucopolysaccharidoses, enzymatic replacement therapy, magnetic resonance imaging

Chauhan Ankita,  Dillard Roger

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-076

Children often present to the emergency room (ER) with painful neck swelling, sore throat, and difficulty breathing. Careful clinical examination and good communication with pediatric physicians help plan the appropriate imaging workup for such pediatric patients. Knowing the various imaging appearances of the many encountered disorders of the neck in children further helps diagnose and plan the most appropriate management. Read More

Authors:  Chauhan Ankita , Dillard Roger

Keywords:  Neck, Pediatric, Imaging

Nyalakonda Ramyashree,  Muehe Anne,  Iles Benjamin,  Theruvath Ashok,  Siedek Florian,  Agarwal Vibhu,  Hawk Kristina,  Jeng Michael,  Daldrup-link Heike

Final Pr. ID: Paper #: 148

To compare the detection of lesions between DW-MRI and 18F-FDG PET/MR for staging and restaging of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH), using all clinical outcomes and imaging data as the reference standard. Also, this study will compare the differences between LCH chemotherapy responders and non-responders. Read More

Authors:  Nyalakonda Ramyashree , Muehe Anne , Iles Benjamin , Theruvath Ashok , Siedek Florian , Agarwal Vibhu , Hawk Kristina , Jeng Michael , Daldrup-link Heike

Keywords:  Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, Diffusion Weighted Imaging, 18F-FDG PET/MR

Prodhomme Olivier,  Baud Catherine,  Saguintaah Magali,  Bolivar Perrin Julie,  David Stephanie,  Taleb Arrada Ikram,  Couture Alain

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-011

To present the technique and the images obtain by postmortem ultrasound in the particular setting of fetal death and discuss its abilities and limitations.
To compare the diagnostic yields of joint analysis of ultrasound and X-Ray compared to autopsy in the setting of fetal death.
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Authors:  Prodhomme Olivier , Baud Catherine , Saguintaah Magali , Bolivar Perrin Julie , David Stephanie , Taleb Arrada Ikram , Couture Alain

Keywords:  Ultrasonography, Postmortem, Fetus, Fetal death, Postmortem Imaging

Cole Elizabeth,  Pauly John,  Vasanawala Shreyas,  Cheng Joseph

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-059

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have proven to be valuable in the fields of image processing and computer vision. Our work applies complex-valued CNNs to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to reduce scan times. The reduction of scan times has widespread pediatric benefits. A typical scan requires that patients remain still for up to an hour to produce a clear image, which is difficult for children without inducing anesthesia, which carries risks. A need exists for greatly improved MRI scan times without the loss of diagnostic accuracy. This scan time can be reduced by subsampling in k-space. We use CNNs to reconstruct images from these undersampled acquisitions. Our work investigates complex-valued CNNs for image reconstruction in lieu of two-channel real-valued CNNs. Read More

Authors:  Cole Elizabeth , Pauly John , Vasanawala Shreyas , Cheng Joseph

Keywords:  Magnetic Resonance Imaging, deep learning, Neural network

Raubenheimer Lauren,  Andronikou Savvas,  Kilborn Tracy

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-053

There is little published research on the wide variation of corpus callosum (CC) morphology in children, the assessment of which is made difficult by the complex alteration of its appearance in childhood. The purpose of our study was to assess the morphology of the CC on mid-sagittal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large number of children and correlate the findings with demographic and clinical criteria. Read More

Authors:  Raubenheimer Lauren , Andronikou Savvas , Kilborn Tracy

Keywords:  children, magnetic resonance imaging, corpus callous morphology

Payne Erin,  Martin-saavedra Juan,  Victoria Teresa,  Robinson Amie,  Fickenscher Kristin,  Chan Sherwin

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-042

Many diseases in pediatrics are relatively uncommon and imaging of these diseases is difficult to study due to small patient numbers at a single site. This limits the ability of single institutions to adequately power a study. Thus, there is a pressing need for a multi-site structure to combine data for rare diseases to appropriately power outcome studies. Our goal is to create an infrastructure to support pooling of imaging and clinical data across institutions to facilitate multi-institutional studies. Read More

Authors:  Payne Erin , Martin-saavedra Juan , Victoria Teresa , Robinson Amie , Fickenscher Kristin , Chan Sherwin

Keywords:  Registry, Multi-Institutional, imaging trials

Matos Rojas Irma,  Lazarte Claudia,  Alpaca Rodriguez Larry

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: CR-04 (R)

Three cases of dermoid cyst will be described with different clinical presentation and location. MRI and CT finding will be reviewed and correlated with pathological finding.
The first case is a 7 year- old child, with suspected diagnosis of stroke which MRI shows a midline posterior fossa tumor with fine occipital dermal sinus, better visualized in CT. The second case is 1 year- old enfant with delayed psychomotor development, a dimple with lock of hair and dorsal hemangioma, which MRI shows a dermal sinus at D4 – D5 level which continues with an intra and extramedullary mass. The last case is 2 year- old child postoperated of mielomeningocele at birth that has neurogenic blader and Chiari II with a cyst mass at conus and low spinal cord insertion.
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Authors:  Matos Rojas Irma , Lazarte Claudia , Alpaca Rodriguez Larry

Keywords:  Dermoid cyst, Magnetic resonance imaging, Posterior fossa, spinal

Dong Su-zhen

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-026

The cardiac system is the part of the fetal anatomy that most frequently suffers from congenital pathology . The fetal heart is routinely studied using first level obstetric ultrasonography. If a fetus is considered to have a cardiac defect, a detailed echocardiographic examination is required. The role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool additional to ultrasound has grown exponentially. Unlike ultrasound imaging, however, MRI is unaffected by maternal and fetal conditions such as obesity and oligohydramnios, which particularly impair sonographic visualization of the fetal heart. In this educational poster, we will provide an overview of fetal cardiac MR imaging methods and their applications in congenital heart disease. This presentation will cover recent technical advances in fetal CMR, the modified anatomic segmental approach to image fetal congenital heart disease, imaging appearances of fetal normal cardiovascular structure and appearances of various structural congenital heart disease on fetal CMR. Multiple imaging examples of fetal congenital heart disease diagnosed by fetal cardiac MR will be presented. Read More

Authors:  Dong Su-zhen

Keywords:  Fetus, Magnetic resonance imaging, Congenital heart disease

Krishnan Vijay,  Kandula Ashrith,  Nikam Rahul

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: EDU-049

In pediatric patients presenting with neurological deficit in emergency department, special attention should be given to identify the conditions that can mimic a stroke to avoiding unnecessary interventions. There are various pathologies in pediatric populations that can mimic stroke both clinically and radiologically. Radiologists, by identifying specific imaging patterns of classical stroke and also patterns of those stroke mimics, shall aid clinician in deciding treatment options in a timely manner.

In this educational poster we aims at,
1) Discussing typical imaging patterns of ischemic stroke.
2) Discussing common pathologies in pediatric age group which can mimic ischimic stroke and pose challenge to the clinicians as well as radiologists.
3) Describing various imaging findings of those stroke mimics that help to differentiate from ischemic stroke.

We discuss the imaging patterns of following pediatric stroke mimics:
- Infective pathologies, including HSV encephalitis
- Demyelinating lesions.
- Vasculitis
- Migraine.
- Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS).
- Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.
- Moya Moya disease.
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.
- Drug related pathologies.
- Miscellaneous conditions.

Differentiation of commonly seen stroke mimics from ischemic stroke in a timely manner helps clinician for proper management and unnecessary interventions.
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Authors:  Krishnan Vijay , Kandula Ashrith , Nikam Rahul

Keywords:  stroke mimics, magnetic resonance imaging

Kim Hyun Gi

Final Pr. ID: Poster #: SCI-022

Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common disorder of the musculoskeletal system in neonates and infants. Most CMT patients can be treated with stretching exercise but some patients with do not response to the treatment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an emerging tool to measure and evaluate skeletal muscle injury. Our aim was to evaluate whether DTI has potential to show the difference in the affected muscle in CMT patients. Read More

Authors:  Kim Hyun Gi

Keywords:  Diffusion tensor imaging, Congenital muscular torticollis